Tomhas na Teanga – Jim Norton

Éisteann an saol iomlán le ceol Meiriceánach.  The whole world listens to American music.  Tosaíodh stíleanna ceoil go leor sna Stáit.  Lots of musical styles were started in the States.  Agus tharla sin mar gheall ar an meascán de cheol is daoine ó thíortha agus ó chultúir an-éagsúla.  And that happened because of the mix of music and people from very different countries and cultures.

Bhíodh ceol na dtíortha áirithe á dhéanamh sna Stáit le fada an lá.  The music of various countries was played in the States for a long time.  Ach i ndiaidh an chogaidh chathartha go háirithe, rinneadh ceol an-difriúil agus nua.   But especially after the Civil War, very different and new music was made.  Jazz a thugtar air ar ball.  It was eventually called jazz.  Ceaptar gur cumadh jazz in New Orleans den chéad uair.  People think that jazz was created in NO originally.  Ach níorbh é NO an t-aon áit a raibh a leithéid ann, ná baol air.  But that wasn’t the only place such a thing was, by any means.  Thuas agus thíos an Mississippi go háirithe a bhí aithne ag na daoine ar na nósanna nua seo.   Up and down the M. especially people knew these new styles.  Agus pé áit a raibh a bhunadh, bhí sé ar fud na tíre faoi cheann achair bhig.  And wherever it was from, it was all over the country within a short period of time.

Tá sé an-chonspóideach cad í foinse an fhocail féin, jazz.  It is very controversial what the source of the word jazz is.  Tá teoiric ann gur as an nGaeilge é.  There is a theory that it is from the Irish.  Deir ollamh i San Francisco darb ainm Daniel Cassidy gur as an bhfocal ‘teas’ é, agus gurb é iriseoir de shliocht na hÉireann darb ainm Scoop Gleeson a bhain úsáid as den chéad uair, i nuachtán i San Francisco.  A professor in SF named…says that it is from the word [heat], and that a reporter with Irish roots named… used it for the first time, in a SF newspaper.  Is iomaí Éireannach a chuir faoi ansin san aois sin.  It’s many an Irishman who settled there in that age.  Bhíodh a lán Gaeilgeoirí ann, gan dabht.  There used to be a lot of Irish speakers there, no doubt.   D’fhaigheadh An Gaodhal (An Gael) ábhar ó SF go minic.  An Gael used to get material from SF often.  Agus bhí a lán ceoltóirí Éireannacha bainteach le buntús an cheoil nua seo.   And there were a lot of Irish musicians involved in the origin of this new music.   Mar sin, luíonn sé le ciall gur thug Gaeilgeoir an t-ainm air.  So, it stands to reason that an Irish speaker gave the name to it.  Ceapaim féin gurb fhéidir go raibh an focal ‘deas’ i gceist, go háirithe mar gheall ar theoiricí eile faoina fhoinse.  i myself think it may have been the word [nice], especially because of  other theories about its source.  Ní an sanasaíocht de cinnte, pé scéal, agus is maith an scéal é gur linne an focal jazz!  The etymology is not certain, anyway, and it’s a good story that the word is ours!

Tá baint nach beag ag Éire le déanamh an bhanna ceoil jazz (tugtar snagcheol air as Gaeilge).  Ireland had no small part in the creation of the jazz band (in Irish, jazz is called…).  Meascán de cheol Afracach, Éireannach, Spáinneach, srl. atá ann.  It’s a mix of African, Irish, Spanish, etc. music.   Ach de réir dealraimh, is ó bhanna máirseála áirithe a tháinig an meascán de huirlisí phráis agus gaothuirlisí mar an sacsafón.  But apparently, it is from a particular marching band that came the mixing of brass instruments with woodwinds like the saxophone.   Agus an duine a rinne sin don chéad uair?  And the person who did that the first time?  Éireannach darb ainm Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore.  An Irishman by the name of…  Rugadh é i mBéal Átha Ghartha, Co. na Gaillimhe, in 1829.  He was born in Ballygar, Gallway, in…  D’fhoghlaim sé a cheird i mBaile Átha Luain ó Patrick Keating, ceannródaí eile na mbannaí máirseála.  He learned his craft from another marching band pioneer…in Athlone.   Chuir Gilmore faoi i mBoston in 1848.  G settled in Boston in 1848.  Bheadh sé i measc na ndaoine ba cháiliúla san aois sin, agus b’fhéidir an ceoltóir ba cháiliúla i Meiriceá.  He would be among the most famous people of that age, and maybe the most famous musician in America.

Bhí banna ceoil míleata aige san arm a raibh cáil agus clú air, agus mar gheall air sin, rinneadh ard-bhannamháistir de, i mbun cheol an airm ar fad.  He had a military band in the army which was very well known, and because of that, he was made bandmaster general for the entire army.  i ndiaidh an chogaidh, bhí ceolchoirm aige in New Orleans leis an mbanna ba mhó riamh.  After the war, he had a concert in NO with the biggest band ever.  Bhíodh ceolchoirmeacha aige i Nua-Eabhrac, ag áit dá chuid féin, Gilmore’s Concert Garden, agus ar ball, rinneadh an chéad Madison Square Garden de.  He used to have concerts in NY, at a place of his own…, and eventually, it became the first MSG.  Thosaigh seisean an nós chun Oíche Chinn Bliana a cheiliúradh in Times Square.  It was he who started the tradition of celebrating New Year’s Eve in…  i rith an chogaidh, chum sé an t-amhrán “When Johnny Comes Marching Home” (ón amhrán Éireannach “Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye”).  During the war, he wrote the song…(from the Irish song…).   Bhí sé agus a bhanna ceoil ar roinnt de na chéad taifeadtaí a rinne Edison.  He and his band were on some of Edison’s first recordings.

Nach ait an rud é nach luaitear ach go hannamh duine chomh cáiliúil sin níos mó?  Isn’t it strange that a person so famous is rarely mentioned any more?

Mar a tharla, ba é “Papa” Jack Laine, Gael-Mheiriceánach (sílim) i New Orleans a bhí an-tábhachtach ag an tús, agus b’eisean an chéad duine chun druma mór agus sreangdhruma a chur le chéile do sheinnteoir amháin. As it happened, an Irish-American (I think)…was very important at the beginning in NO, and he was the first person to put the bass and snare drum together for one player.  Fuair sé a chéad dhruma ó mhac Patrick Gilmore!  He got is first drum from PG’s son!